The axis of liberty portraying the level of liberty an individual enjoys under the main political ideologies.
The most totalitarian ideology that has ever existed. Aims to achieve a classless, moneyless and stateless society structured upon common ownership of the means of production. The ideology is responsible for the murder of almost 100 million people in the 20th century.
Main varieties: Marxism-Leninism, Stalinism, Trotskyism, Maoism, Anarcho-communism
Parties: Communist Party of China, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Workers’ Party of Korea
People: Mao Zedong, Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Karl Marx
In practice: Never implemented entirely, in the majority of cases reached no more than socialism level. However, People’s Republic of China (1949-1976), Soviet Union (1922–1952) and North Korea (since 1945) achieved a higher degree of communisation.
An extreme form of fascism that incorporates biological racism and anti-Semitism.
The ideology is responsible for over 20 millions deaths.
Parties: National Socialist German Workers’ Party
People: Adolf Hitler, Joseph Goebbels, Heinrich Himmler
In practice: Nazi Germany (1933-1945)
An economic system characterised by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy. A socialist economic system consists of a system of production and distribution organised to directly satisfy economic demands and human needs, so that goods and services are produced directly for use instead of for private profit driven by the accumulation of capital. Distribution is based on the principle to each according to his contribution. Death toll considered under communism.
Parties: Socialist Party of Yugoslavia
People: Josip Tito, Fidel Castro
In practice: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1943-1992), Cuba (since 1959). Moreover, most of the Eastern Europe between 1945 and 1990.
The ideology focused on the veneration of the state, a devotion to a strong leader, and an emphasis on ultranationalism and militarism. Fascism views political violence, war, and imperialism as a means to achieve national rejuvenation and asserts that stronger nations have the right to expand their territory by displacing weaker nations. Certain elements can appear only in particular examples such as praise of Catholicism in Spain or Free Market in Chile.
Parties: National Fascist Party
People: Benito Mussolini, Francisco Franco, Augusto Pinochet
In practice: Kingdom of Italy (1922-1943), Empire of Japan (1937-1945), Spain (1939-1975), Chile (1973-1990)
Social liberalism (modern liberalism in US) and Social Democracy
The ideology seeks to balance individual liberty and social justice. It endorses a market economy on limited basis and the expansion of civil and political rights and liberties, but believes the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education. Social democracy seems to be further left but rather represents similar approach.
Parties: US Democratic Party, UK Labour Party, UK Liberal Democrats (majority)
People: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Lyndon B. Johnson, Bill Clinton, John Maynard Keynes, Tony Blair
In practice: US during the presidency of Democrats, UK when LP wins general election
The ideology which synthesizes the ideals of Christianity and democracy. Often considered conservative on cultural, social, and moral issues while advocating a social market economy.
Parties: Christian Democratic Union (Germany), Nationalist Party of Malta
People: Angela Merkel
In practice: very influential in Germany and Malta
The ideology promotes retaining traditional social institutions and values combined with the idea of small government, low taxes, limited regulation, and free enterprise.
Parties: US Conservative Party, British Conservative Party
People: Ronald Reagan, David Cameron, Margaret Thatcher
In practice: US during the presidency of Conservatives, UK when CP wins general election
The ideology advocates civil liberties with a limited government under the rule of law, private property, and belief in laissez-faire economic policy. Advocates economy based on the Chicago School as well as loose application of non-aggression principle.
In the United States term “libertarianism” has been used as a substitute for the term “classical liberalism”, however, right-libertarians still use the term to describe their own distinctive ideology.
Parties: US Libertarian Party (majority), UK Liberal Democrats (minority)
People: Andrew Napolitano, Ron Paul, Milton Friedman
In practice: US Constitution and the USA in 19th century
Libertarianism (as viewed by minarchists)
The ideology that upholds liberty as the highest political end. This includes emphasis on the primacy of individual liberty, political freedom, and voluntary association. A state limited in scope to preventing aggression, theft, breach of contract and fraud. Strict application of non-aggression principle. Very closely linked to classical liberalism.
Parties: US Libertarian Party (minority), UK Libertarian party (majority)
People: Ayn Rand, Robert Nozick
In practice: Never implemented
The ideology aims to eliminate the concept of state altogether. Everything is supposed to be based on private property and voluntarism. Advocates economy based on the Austrian School.
Parties: proponents rather not associated
People: Murray Rothbard, Ludwig von Mises
In practice: Never implemented
It is apparent that the level of liberty on the axis increases rightwards. From totalitarian communism where everything is controlled by the state to the anarcho-capitalism where the state does not exist.
One must answer themselves under what political ideology they would feel most comfortable.